Main Features of the Mahanadi River Basin
Mahanadi River Basin is bounded on the north by the hills of central India on the south and east by the eastern ghats and on the west by Maikal range, it extends over the states of Chhattisgarh and odisha as well as over small regions of Jharkhand , basin is circular in shape and can be divided into a four regions they are the northern plateau the eastern ghats the central plain and the coastal plain, which receive ample rainfall are rice growing area, important projects in the basin include the Hirakuddam, mahanadi delta project hasdeo bang, and mahanadi reservoir project, it covers nearly 10 percent of the total geographical area of the country, satmala hills the ajantha range and the Mahadeo hills form the northern boundary, basin stretches to the eastern ghats in the south and east and the western ghats in the west, it covers large areas in the states of Mahrasthra, as well as smaller parts, major hydro power stations in the basins are upper, number of adams constuction in godavari basin is the highest among all the river basins in India.
Features of the Krishna Basin:
Krishna River Basin stretches to the balaghat range in the north, the eastern ghats in the south and east and western ghats in the west, interstate river extending to three states they are andhra pradesh, iron and steel cement, sugar cane, vegetable oil extraction and rice milling are important industrial activities at present in the basin, recently oil has been struck in this basin as well the major urban centres in the basin are pune and hyderabad, river basin is bounded by Tungabhadra sub basin of the krishna basin, city of banglore is situated outside this basin, many of Indias towns and cities are are on the banks of rivers, these urban centres discharge their waste water directly into the nearest river without treating it.
Pollution of Major Problem in India
Since most cities get their drinking water from the same river this results in the spread of water borne diseases, in addition indian rivers and other sources of fresh water are polluted by industrial waste as well, these industrial wastes can be very toxic to all forms of life fertilizers and pesticides also pollute our rivers as do religious and social practices, as a consequence pollution is a major problem in most of india river cause not only to people but also to aquatic and animal life, major rivers of India are all polluted these include even holy rivers like the ganga and yumuna, rivers like the Gomti have high percentage of coliform bacteria, coliforms are a braod class of bacteria found in our environment including the faces of man and other warm blooded animals, presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate possible presence of disease causing organisms, pollution is not problem limited to just big rivers even small rivers like the river in mumbai are polluted by the solid liquid and chemical wastest generated by the city, in fact its estimated that the number of contaminated rivers in the country has more than doubled over the past fiver years.
How Badly is the Ganga Polluted
River ganga provides water to about 40 percent of indias populated across 11 states serving an estimated population of 500 million or more in fact the river directly or indirectly affects the lives of more people than any other river in the world, some of the worlds oldes cities are situated on its banks and it is considred sacred to the hindus, yet sadly approximately one billions litres of raw untreated sewage are dumped in the river on a daily basis this amount has more than doubled in the last 20 years, in fact the amount of toxins chemicals and bacteria found in the ganga have now reached levels.
Ganga river basin is one of the most densely popular areas in the world, river flows through 29 cities with a population over flows through another 23 cities that have a population varying between in addition to about 48 towns, all these people depend on the ganga for their drinking water, at the same time vast numbers bathe and wash their clothes in the river, sewage of these cities can also be seen floating on the ganga, as a result there are high levels of coliform in the water, industrial cities like kanpur allahabad, are located on the banks of the ganga, they are the home of numerous tanneries chemical plants textile mills and distilleries as well as other industrial and manufacture units, each day more than 500 million litres of wastewater from industrial sources are dumpled directly into ganga, in many places the waste water entering the rivers is raw and completely untreated industrial waste is making the ganga for use as source of drinking, presence chemicals and heavy metals far exceed any sort of safe or acceptable levels, without adquate and affordable treatment technologies small scale industries continue to pollute the river ganga with over a billion litres of toxic chemicals.
Basin of the river ganga is indias richest basin in terms of fish species a world bank study published in 1996 had estimated it as around 350 species, diversity is at its richest at the myriad mouths of the ganga where it forms the worlds largest mangrove forest, the sunderbans, however because of the high levels of pollution four freshwater fish species in the ganga basin are various degrees. the upper reaches of the ganga is home to 12 freshwater turtile species six of which are species of crocodiles the gharial and the mugger the common indian otter and the smooth indian otter are also on the list, and then of course there is the famous ganga dolphin, now declare indias national acquatic animal which is under threat as well and all this is because of pollution, it was said in olden times that a single drop of ganga water brushing your cheek could cleanse you of all sins, because of the high levels of pollution it may cause levels continue to soar diseases that are caused and spread by contaminated water also spread rapidly, every year millions of indians are water borne diseases like tertis, people are blinded by trachoma because they bathe in dirty water, worldwatch institute in Washington says that one person in the ganga basin does very 30 seconds eight out of every suffer from pollution has to be checked on a war footing otherwise millions of indians will suffer its fatal consequences.