History of Science and Scientific Method


Science has four different meanings, it represents facts and hence is an authority it is an exact or effective way of doing things it some time resembles magic because it seems to perform wonders, it is a special kind of organized knowledge to be studies, to the scientist science is a method of solving problem it means following a careful systematic procedure in obtaining a solution to problems, attitudes which the scientists exhibit make the method more effective.

History of Science:

Scientists have entered in all fields to make the world is better place to live in medicine scientist have achieved what had been considered impossible some time ago, people used to believe these when certain disease producing germs enter into the human body nothing could be done, but one after another penicillin, have been prepared many important discoveries have been made like radio, television, telephone, teleprinter, in the field of information and communications, in the transport field scooters, cars, railways, airplanes, rockets were activities these is continuous search for the discovery of new aspects, history of science explain the continuous integration of the scientific knowledge with society, everyday several scientific discoveries are coming into the light due to the constant and collective effort of the scientist located in different parts of the world, basing on these new discoveries can be considered as an institution in the great responsibility towards society it can answer several questions arising out of our daily life.

Important Land Marks in Science:

Several events have occurred since the birth for the knowledge of science and civilization, following table chronological order which ultimately explain the history of science, instrument made of stonres and bones, cave dwelling life, hunting and cooking the food, painting and sculpture and use of ornaments, taming the animals starting of agriculture wheat crop and plant, pottery wreaking of cattle housing, transport carts chariots with horses, ships for trade use of knaves and other pointed instruments, extraction of copper, use of copper in making utensils, sind civilization extraction of metals like zinc, tin, and alloys like bronze, attractive ornaments creation of script construction of temples, pyramids, bronze age kingdoms, civilized societies, establishment of numerical systems, astronomical observation, writing of rigveda, identification of Geometrical equation discovery of iron, additions, subtractions, division, decimal, writing of Yajurveda, square roots, geometrical principles, pythagoras theorem, calculation relating to cylinders value, Arthasastra by Koutilay, war fare, Metallurgy, philosophical theories.

Ptolomys theory progress in astronomical knowledge, Charaka Samhita, Mathematics by Aryabhatta, Geomatirc Theory squares, astronomical and mathematical knowledge by Brahma Gupta, Varahamihira and Bhaskara Eclipses, Planetary movement discover of zero trignometry, quaratiac equation, mathematical knowledge of Mahaveera, domination of Rasarnava, Rasa Ratnakara and Achemy in India, Origin of modern science Geostationary and Geocentric theories Helidentric theory by copernicus, painints by Leonardo Davinche, Discouragement of Alchermy Birth of Chemistry, Growth and progress of Modern science Keplers laws, galalio’s theory, blood circulation theory by william harvey theories of man and atoms, scientific method of geometry, maturity phase of modern science laws of motion by Sir Issac Newton, theories of boyle and hooke, principles of electromagnetism, theory of relativity of Einstein Quantum theory by plant current flow theory plant sciences and classification identification of rocks and theories of fossils, daltons atomic theory law of electromagnetic force, darwins theory of evolution, Mendel’s laws of inheritance, xrays by roent gen, study of human physchology by friend, radio activity, nuclear fusion theory, synthesis of genes.

Science of knowledge as curtained by carrying out various experiments and observations in a systematic way, it is the collection of the his experiences though ages, the scientific method involves four states, they are observation, hyphthesis, experimental proof, formation of princples and theories, the first stage in scientific method in observation, scientists are always curious, they keep their eyes open to all the phenomenon occurring in nature when Sir CV Raman was going to england in a ship, he found the water of Mediterranean sea having a deep blue colour, the observation led to the discovery of the Raman effect Louis Pasteur French Chemist found that number of sheep were dying each year of a disease called anihrax, he also came to know the robert koch a german sciences discovered the bacterium that causes the disease, there were his observation which resulted in the discovery of and rabies vaccine, henry observed that a salt, double sulphate of uranium and potassium wrapped in a piece of drawer in which sunlight cannot penetrate, his observations led to the discoveries phenomenon of radio activity which has helped man to cure the deadly disease of cancer, Newton observed the fall of an apple from the tree, he immediately wanted to know the reason for the fall the apple toward ground, he thought seriously and questioned himself as why it could not move up into the sky, these observation led to the discovery of laws of gravitation.


Second stage in the scientific method of realty underlying a phenomenon it is evolution of a trial idea or tenable suggestion concerning the nature and connection between the observation, it believed that light form the sun is scattered by the tiny droplets of water and that the blue part of spectrum is more readily scattered that the rest and blue colour is due to this predominant scattering of the blue colours, began with a belief that sheep could be from anthrax disease, if they are given a series that some substances like uranium and its salts give out highly penetrating invisible radiation, which can photographic plate, newton made to conclusions from his observation in the form of hypothesis, objects falling from a height reach the ground, the reason for falling of the objects as thought to be force of attraction between the object and the ground, hypothesis can never become a law unless thoroughly by a series experiments.

Experimental Proof:

Third stage of scientific method is the experiments proof it is the back bone of scientific investigation sir CV Raman after reaching england went through the work done on scattering by other, he conducted a series of experiments on scattering light using many organic liquids, he found that the scattered light contains wave lengths of higher and lower wave lengths compared to those of incident light, louis pasteur began his experiments by selecting, forty eight sheep placed in two fens, the sheep in one pen are injected with weakened bacteria of regular intervals, those in the other pen were not treated, about a month later a deadly amount of bacteria was given to the sheep in both the pens, the results are awaited with anxiety and excitement, two days later none of the sheep in first pen has developed anthrax, all except two in the second pen, and the remaining results proved that hypothesis is correct, succeeded in his application of the scientific method, henry radio active materials like uranium are compiled in nature which consists of a-rays, p-rays, y-rays and soon the phenomenon was used for understanding the structure of the atom, newton recorded the following facts after conducting some experiments, any object thrown from a height reached the ground, objects of different weights dropped at the same height reached the ground all at a time, when the objects are thrown into the air with some force, the one with more force fall on the ground at a distance, while that with a less force reaching the ground near to be thrower, formation of the principles and theories, fourth stage of scientific method of formation of principles and theories when the hypothesis is tested experimentally and confirmed and when no deviation are observed it becomes a theory, but theory is open to modification by any experiment conducted at a later date and in the light of the results arrived at them Raman effect main curie and ruther furds radio activity hypothesis, newton hypothesis became important theories and principles.

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