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Sphynxbuffer

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Ience, religion, social complexities--derives in part from our capacity to orient toward, and plan with respect to, an uncertain but potentially controllable future (e.g., Donald, 1991; Lombardo, 2008). All organisms capable of long-term memory are necessarily oriented toward the future. A feature of memory apparently unique to humans, however, is the degree to which the decisions and plans that w
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Was part of their memory of the recalled experience. In the future-oriented condition, the participantsMem Cognit. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 January 24.Klein et al.Pagewere asked to imagine that they were planning to go camping and then to decide whether each of the items in the list was relevant to planning their trip. In the atemporal condition, the participants were asked to use
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Past, future) but a similar context. Consistent with our hypothesis, future-oriented encoding produced superior recall. We discuss these findings in light of their implications for the thesis that memory evolved to enable its possessor to anticipate and respond to future contingencies that cannot be known with certainty. The adaptive function of information storage is intrinsically prospective: It
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Ng encoding, the participants received a surprise recall test in which they were asked to remember as many list words as possible. We predicted that the task designed to encourage planning for the future (i.e., the planning task) would produce reliably higher recall of list items than would either the past-oriented or the atemporal task. Planning, like any cognitive process, is metabolically costl
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Ssociated with camping and items not associated with camping--any recall differences between tasks were anticipated to be minimal.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSurvival Versus PlanningAlthough not directly part of the logic motivating our study, we included a fourth encoding condition, in which the participants were once again asked to imagine that they
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Kins, 1976; Williams, 1966). An evolved system, defined with respect to functionality, consists of those component processes--and their coordinated interactions--that are necessary to accomplish a specific adaptive task. We suggest that many features of human memory systems have been designed by evolution, in part, to interface with systems for long-term planning. For an organism to behave more ap
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Course of action (e.g., bringing a raincoat to the woods) has been considered during the current planning routine. This should occur even if the potential course of action is ultimately determined to be irrelevant; indeed, it would be particularly wasteful to reconsider a course of action already deemed useless. Therefore, engaging in planning (e.g., by considering whether a series of objects woul
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Course of action (e.g., bringing a raincoat to the woods) has been considered during the current planning routine. This should occur even if the potential course of action is ultimately determined to be irrelevant; indeed, it would be particularly wasteful to reconsider a course of action already deemed useless. Therefore, engaging in planning (e.g., by considering whether a series of objects woul